Alzheimer's Brain Borrelia DNAin Neurons,Plaques

Alzheimer's Disease
Studied with Autopsy
demonstrates  that Infection by Borrelia Spirochetes
is regularly present in Autopsy Alzheimer's Disease
brains. The Chronic Borrelia Brain Infection is
a Cause of Alzheimer's Disease.

The Model  for  Dementia CAUSED by Chronic
 brain Infections by Spirochetes is the
 conclusive Model of Dr. Hideyo Noguchi
 who proved that Treponema Pallidum
 late chronic Brain Infection is
 THE CAUSE  of General Paresis [ Syphilis dementia]

21st century tools investigate infection by detection of
microbe's DNA at the site of the Disease
in human tissue.

DNA of Borrelia is Present in the following
                          areas of the Alzheimer's Brain:
1.  All of the Alzheimer's Plaques
2.  Perfect Spirochetes (Borrelia) are seen
       under the fluorescent microscope
       in solid brain tissues, in Blood vessels
       of the Brain, and in the Alzheimer's Plaques.
3.  All of the Granular bodies which are present
        in dying nerve cells in the Alzheimer's Brain
        (Granulo-vacuolar Degeneration: {GVB Lesions]
Autopsy Brain, when placed in Laboratory Cultures
         produce pure Cultures of Borrelia spirochetes.

My present Research uses DNA Probes , specific for borrelia , to bind to  sites in diseased brain tissues, 
specifically Alzheimer's Disease Autopsy Brain tissues.

FISH methods (Fluorescence In Situ DNA Hybridization)-  in my research -  utilizes the
BEST DNA PROBES available today, specifically
Molecular Beacons.  The Molecular Beacons
absolutely bind to Target Borrelia DNA ...
but only will bind to a DNA ..
if There is a 100% match-
between TheMicrobe Borrelia DNA in diseased tissues - and the DNA structure in My  Molecular Beacon DNA Probes...
            If even a single Base (nucleotide "A"or"T" ,or"G", or "C") Mismatch exists, ..
the 100% rule for Molecular Beacon Binding is Violated,.
and no signal will be released by the DNA probe.  A positive signal indicates that the 100% match rule for Molecular Beacon DNA Probe binding has been satisfied.  A Positive FISH Hybridization in
Alzheimer's Brain,  is bulletproof evidence of Borrelia
infection - Visualized by the Fluorescent Microscope.
FISH Borrelia Probes Visualize ENTIRE Borrelia
spirochetes - at the EXACT sites of Alzheimer's tissue

In a Series of  
cases from the Harvard Brain Bank ,

         [from Alzheimer's Disease Brains]..
my Molecular Beacon DNA Probes bound to Borrelia DNA in ALL CASES STUDIED. (5/5)

The astonishing observation in my DNA probe studies on the Harvard Brain Bank Alzheimer's Disease Cases is the Discovery of not just One Borrelia,  But, Two strains of borrelia in five of five Alzheimer' s brains...
Two different   species of Borrelia spirochetes
(Burgdorferi and Miyamotoi)  were simultaneously present in the Alzheimer's Brain tissues, from Harvard.

The Discovery of Burgdorferi  in Alzheimer's Brain
was FIRST published by me in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1986.  I demonstrated
Borrelia spirochetes from 4 cases obtained from Dr. George Glenner's Brain Bank at the UCSD SanDiego.
I succeeded in a total of 6 Alzheimer's Cases in the culture in the laboratory of Living Borrelia spirochetes
from DEAD (Autopsy Brain) tissue., between 1986 to 1988. Subsequently, in year 1993,  Cultures for borrelia from Autopsy Alzheimer's disease  was again verified by Dr. Judith Miklossy, in Switzerland.

In year 2015, my research continues, with DNA probes
specific for Borrelia DNa in Alzheimer's tissue. I request your support to extend my DNA Probe studies
to connect Chronic Deep Brain Infection with Borrelia
Burgdorferi and Borrelia Miyamotoi in Alzheimer's patients. I want to extend my research to study the
Spinal fluid from living Donor patients with Dementia
to detect Borrelia DNA in the spinal Fluid.

Early Detection of Borrelia Brain Infection offers the opportunity for the patient to be treated in the hope that ERADICATION of Brain and Spinal Fluid Infection, can Prevent the Development of Dementia.

Link: To Teaching Image Galleries:
        Biofilms of borrelia : What do they look like ?

I thank you for your support.  All of my research has always been FREE for All , and will remain Free for All.
None of my discoveries have been or ever will be patented .  No patient / volunteer will ever be charged for my research on their Behalf.

Respectfully submitted,

Alan B. MacDonald,MD
Fellow, College of American  Pathologists

8427 Benelli Court
Naples. Florida, 34114, USA

Note: Additional Video Lectures on my Alzheimer's Research  are FREEly available on You Tube and Vimeo.

My Website:

Vimeo Lecture:

Notes on The Complicated Genetics of Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease:

I have examined normal autopsy brains and found them to be free
of  the Biofilm/amyloid plaques  that I imaged in The 100 Alzheimer's plaques.

There is no dispute from me about the Multiple genetic underpinnings that have been linked to Early onset Alzheimer's.
However,  the Genetics are NOT INFORMATIVE about the structure of Amyloid plaques, the reason for small amyloid plaques to grow in size over time to large caliber and high density plaques. the reason for the holes in these plaques, the development of neurofibrillary tangles inside of certain neurons but sparing adjacent neurons completely,and the reason for granular/vacuolar change in other neurons [ also labelled for death= these never containing the Tangles of the NFT neurons.
A reconciliation of Genetic observations in less than 5% of the total number of Alzheimer's Cases, and the ever increasing number of distinctly different mutations, some of which have no "flow chart" to connect a site of mutation with the subsequent evolution of Alzheimer's lead me to believe that  Genetic ideas are not coherent, not the  same from Early AD case to other AD cases, and may constitute " NOISE" at the genetic level..

Further, I  have described Borrelia DNa insertions into the human chromosome 11q and have deposited these PCR sequences in the National GenBank ;[ Search Terms:

" "Transfection DNA"  "MacDonald" "2006".

There are events of genetic mischief induced by borrelia which penetrates human neurons and which gains access to the Human DNa INSIDE of the healthy nucleus.  I believe that the DNA structure of Borrelia DNA ( which resembles the configuration of human DNa more closely than any other infectious microbial DNa- allow for this to happen naturally in the wild.
For those souls who realize that incubations of infectomes residing Inside of human cells for the lifetime of the patient, and for those who understand the delayed onset of tissue pathology, consequent to these Infectomes,  it is an open question as follows:

Can Long incubation times [ of up to 40yrs, 50yrs, 80 yrs..] play a role in the evolution of Borrelia dementias?

Can infection acquired by the unborn fetus while in utero, and then born alive, with normal appearing human development,  in the course of life, develop activation of the Trans placental acquired infection as an mature adult? Tardive  is a word  familiar to those who know the syphilis story. Tardive illness only  appear, years to decades after the penetration of the infecting spirochete into the human body,[ to hide quietly and unobtrusively in  sanctuary sites,[ brain and spinal cord and gonad : all sites of sanctuary for borrelia] ??

Unanswered questions. Questions never queried by the Alzheimer's disease Establishment....Questions which can be answered in part by microscopic study using DNA probes for the infectome DNA/mRNA in tissue biopsies and in body fluids.
I shall attempt to answer the questions.

I have posted Images /Galleries of Borrelia spirochetes under Fluorescent Microscopy  using my FISH method and my Borrelia Specific DNA Probes:
[See Harvard Brain Bank folio below]_____

Resume (Curriculum Vitae) Alan B.MacDonald,MD


Images of Borrelia Spirochetes in Alzheimer's Autopsy Brain: [Harvard Brain Bank Specimens- an Image Gallery]

Research Proposal - [ Adopted] to the Board of Directors : Tick Borne Disease Alliance

Inside of the Alzheimer' Plaque; Borrelia in biofilm:
    100 separate Image Studies with FISH Method
     and Miyamotoi borrelia ( Fla B) DNA probe -Cy5 label- Biofilms of Borrelia:  Image Gallery  from
         Laboratory reared borrelia Bioflms - for comparison    with   In Vivo Borrelia Biofilms  dwelling INSIDE  of  Amyloid Plaques of Alzheimer's  Disease , 
              Visualized by DNA Probe Hybridizations
              in Autopsy tissue sections


Dr. Jennifer Souders'  letter -Evaluating the scientific method and the principles utilized in this Research:

Alan B. MacDonald MD: Lyme Expert Interview Transcripts : Year 2013

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Alan MacDonald 
Naples, FL
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