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Nikimu water conservation project for food production during dry periods and adapt to climate change. INTRODUCTION Water is the vital resource to support all forms life on earth. Unf... more

 
 
 
 
 
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Updated posted by Iecdaa Enviro 11 months ago

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Updated posted by Iecdaa Enviro 11 months ago

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Updated posted by Iecdaa Enviro 12 months ago

In Punjab (India), one area most positively affected by the Green Revolution, yield growth has essentially flattened since the mid‐1990s, partially because their 1.3 million wells have depleted the underground water supply. The best way to avoid this is to harvest rain water and use it for irrigation

 
 
 
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Created by Iecdaa Enviro on January 17, 2013

Nikimu water conservation project for food production during dry periods and adapt to climate change.

INTRODUCTION
Water is the vital resource to support all forms life on earth. Unfortunately, it is not evenly distributed over the world by season or location. Some parts of the world are prone to drought making water a scarce and precious commodity, while in other parts of the world it appears in raging torrents causing floods and loss of life and property. Throughout the history of the world, dams and reservoirs have been used successfully in collecting, storing and managing water needed to sustain civilization. Even today, water remains essential for the survival of mankind and the future development of the world’s cities, industries and agriculture. Storing water through reservoirs and dams is seen as another way of adapting to climate change. The primary benefit of dams and water reservoirs in the world is water supply. Another key purpose and benefit include: Irrigation for agriculture (food supply).
Meeting the agricultural demand for food supply;
One of the biggest uses of water on a worldwide scale is agricultural irrigation. Since the early
1990s, less than 1/5 of the land suitable for agriculture in the world has been irrigated, and it has contributed about 1/3 of world food production. It is estimated that 80% of additional food production by the year 2025 will come from irrigated land. Most of the areas in need of irrigation are in arid zones, which represent a major portion of the developing countries. However, with the effects of climate change on agriculture, more widespread measures to conserve water by improvements in irrigation technology, construction of more reservoir projects will be required especially in developing countries like Uganda where agriculture counts for about 80% of the economy.

DESCRIPTION OF PURPOSE AND NEED

A. Purpose
The Nikimu water conservation project will be committed to water conservation project activities in order to adapt to climate change and increase irrigation for food production in subsequent years following its establishment.

The relief of Budaka District is generally low and flat characterized by shallow seasonal wetlands, were by these waters can be collected and conserved for increased food production and adaption to climate change. Its altitude ranges from 900-1200m above sea level (average of 1145m). The drainage system is dominated by rivers flowing from the Namatala and lwere swamp complexes. Which have their watersheds mainly on the slopes of Mt Elgon. The water source to these wetlands is mainly surface flow in terms of rivers, precipitation and ground water. There are great advantages associated with this project: the conservation of these water sheds will also influence micro climate; the environmental impact is low in area where the project is going to be located and when these waters are collected and conserved for climate change adaption purpose, the water conservation ponds can be used for fish farming; the project supports the economy of Uganda, whereby it is based on agriculture and the irrigation system and the water conservation will support food production (organic farming) throughout the year.

Need
Nikimu water conservation is necessary due to prolonged drought and climate change which takes farmers by surprise in many parts of Budaka district.
The drought, which used to take 3 month, now takes four to five month in several parts of Budaka District( Eastern uganda). According to IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and Climate Prediction Centers in Uganda. These conditions are likely to continue and affect the nation of Uganda. As drought conditions continue, Nikimu water conservation project will ensure that maximum amount of water is conserved for agriculture (especially organic farming) during these prolonged drought periods.

Youth, employment and Sustainable agriculture

“In Africa, 200 million people are aged between 15 and 24 years, comprising more than 20% of population. Africa’s population is growing fast and is experiencing a slow demographic transition, which will increase the pressure countries face with job creation.
Note
· Youth make up 37% percent of the working-age population in Africa, but 60%of the total unemployed.
· Youth unemployment is much more prevalent in urban areas
Youth unemployment is leading various problems in Africa including rebellions like the ones Tunisia and Egypt and this likely to spread too many parts of the world if not solved

Lack of opportunities in rural areas have encouraged the youth to migrate to urban centers. But, because most countries like Uganda have not yet initiated their transition to industrialization, urban centers cannot create a massive number of jobs. Thus, in the short term, only rural activities like farming can effectively create occupation for most new job seekers.

Modern agriculture has considerable potential for job and wealth creation and may absorb large numbers of would-be youth migrants or youths who currently crowd the cities with underemployment. Making well balanced choices for employment-intensive investments in agriculture activities can create immediate short term employment opportunities which can be more easily tapped by young people. Combined with appropriate local economic development strategies, it can generate more and sustainable jobs. This requires strategies to make agriculture an attractive enough option for youth to engage in, including moving away from subsistence agriculture, and introducing commercialization and productivity improvements through technological changes and infrastructure support. Supporting organic farming and fish farming( highly recommend to day) can provide away forward for the governments want to mitigate and prevent youth urban unemployment and underemployment to grow, and the well being in the already congested African cities like Kampala in Uganda. Not only will sustainable agriculture resolve youth employment, but sustainable agriculture involving organic farming can solve most of current environmental problems.”

Organic farming in solving current environmental problems

· Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change
Despite organic farming’s low-energy methods, it is not in reducing demand for power that the techniques stand to make the biggest savings in greenhouse gas emissions. The production of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, which is indispensable to conventional farming, produces vast quantities of nitrous oxide – a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential some 320 times greater than that of CO2. In fact, the production of one tonne of ammonium nitrate creates 6.7 tonnes of greenhouse gases (CO²e).
· Energy

Far from being simply ‘energy-lite’, however, organic farms have the potential to become self-sufficient in energy – farms can feed manure and waste from livestock and crops into biodigesters, which convert it into a methane-rich gas to be used for creating heat and electricity. The residue from these biodigesters is a crumbly, nutrient-rich fertilizer, which can then be spread on soil to increase crop yields or further digested by algae and used as a fish or animal feed.
Promote Biodiversity
Visit an organic farm and you’ll notice something: a buzz of animal, bird and insect activity. These organic oases are thriving, diverse habitats. Beneficial insects allow for a greater balance, and indigenous animals find these farms a safe haven. As best said by Aldo Leopold, “A good farm must be one where the native flora and fauna have lost acreage without losing their existence.” An organic farm is the equivalent of reforestation. Industrial farms are the equivalent of clear cutting of native habitat with a focus on high farm yields.
Protect Future Generations
Before a mother first nurses her newborn, the toxic risk from pesticides has already begun. Studies show that infants are exposed to hundreds of harmful chemicals in uterus. In fact, our many nations are now reaping the results of exposure to agricultural and industrial chemicals, whose safety was deemed on adult tolerance levels, not on children’s. According to the National Academy of Science, “neurologic and behavioral effects may result from low-level exposure to pesticides.” Numerous studies show that pesticides can adversely affect the nervous system, increase the risk of cancer, and decrease fertility. Promoting organic farming inclusive in this project can be the way for sustainable and a health future for our children.”
The Pond Fish Farming in water conservation ponds will contribute to Millennium Development Goals

Millennium development goal

How pond fish farming contribute to MDGs

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Fish protein(proper nutrition) correlates with reduced health care, it is proved that a lot of money is spent on treating many nutritional diseases including protein deficiencies in Uganda for example kwashiorkor ; project will improve food security by constant production and supply of fresh fish in the District and the Surrounding communities.
Fish farming in potential sites will provide employment for at youth in Kamonkoli and Budaka District as a whole, and income to farmers who will get involved in continued farming during dry season, hence reducing poverty


Achieve Universal Primary Education
Target: Ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of Primary Schooling millennium summit

Fish protein is very important in brain cells development and therefore the mental and brain capacity of children. The poor academic and creativity capacity of the people is closely associated with lack protein in children’s diet, egg protein will enable boys and girls alike, complete a full course of Primary without difficulties. There will also be continued farming, this will be able to provide food for students in school.


Promote gender equality and empower women

Farming activities are executed both by men and women; hence water conservation will enable both women and men for continued farming.

Reduce child mortality
Target ; reduce by two- thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate (millennium summit)


Fish protein fights the most deadly disease (kwashiorkor)
Caused by lack or low protein content in children Known to claim number of children in developing nations including Uganda. Fish farming in water conservation ponds will solve this problem.


Improve maternal Health
Target ; Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio ( millennium summit)

Improved nutrition (through fish protein) and diet can reduce the susceptibility of a woman to diseases which appear during pregnancy. Including women of child –bearing age as "end points" in health assessments of Nutrition will inform Public health strategies as geared health of women, their children and the fetus.



Combat HIV/AIDs, malaria and other
Diseases
Target ; Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS(millennium summit)
Target: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other Major Diseases
(millennium summit)



Food security and improved nutrition helps in fighting diseases, improved nutrition (through fish protein and improved food production) can help to boost the immune system of people suffering from HIV/AIDS.

Ensure environmental sustainability
Target : Integrate the principles of sustainable development in to the country polices and reverse the loss of environmental recourses

Water conservation projects have been known to create micro climates.
Crops also are known to improve micro climates through evapo- transpiration.
With fish farming, by products will be recycled into poultry and animal feeds(organic farming), this promotes environmental sustainability, as compared to the use of inorganic fertilizers


Develop a global partnership for development

International (FAO) and other organizations represent a potential international funding to support national capacity building for food security and improve farming or agriculture in Uganda.
Promoting partnership with many agricultural, environmental organization and ministries will benefit environmental conservation in Uganda









 
 
 
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