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In Punjab (India), one area most positively affected by the Green Revolution, yield growth has essentially flattened since the mid"1990s, partially because their 1.3 million wells have depleted the underground water supply. The best way to avoid this is to harvest rain water and use it for irrigation
Achieving MDGS with simple projects
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 193 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve these goals by the year 2015. The goals are:
1. Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger,
2. Achieving universal primary education,
3. Promoting gender equality and empowering women,
4. Reducing child mortality rates,
5. Improving maternal health,
6. Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases,
7. Ensuring environmental sustainability, and
8. Developing a global partnership for development.
Can Nikimu water conservation project for food production during dry periods and adapt to climate change be among the projects that can contribute to the millennium development goals?
Nikimu water conservation project for food production during dry
periods and adapt to climate change.
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Water is the vital
resource to support all forms life on earth. Unfortunately, it is not evenly
distributed over the world by season or location. Some parts of the world are
prone to drought making water a scarce and precious commodity, while in other
parts of the world it appears in raging torrents causing floods and loss of
life and property. Throughout the history of the world, dams and reservoirs
have been used successfully in collecting, storing and managing water needed to
sustain civilization. Even today, water remains essential for the survival of
mankind and the future development of the world's cities, industries and
agriculture. Storing water through reservoirs and dams is seen as
another way of adapting to climate change. The primary benefit of
dams and water reservoirs in the world is water supply. Another key purpose and
benefit include: Irrigation for agriculture (food supply).
Meeting the agricultural demand for food supply;
One of the biggest
uses of water on a worldwide scale is agricultural irrigation. Since the early
1990s, less than 1/5
of the land suitable for agriculture in the world has been irrigated, and it
has contributed about 1/3 of world food production. It is estimated that 80% of
additional food production by the year 2025 will come from irrigated land. Most
of the areas in need of irrigation are in arid zones, which represent a major
portion of the developing countries. However, with the effects of climate
change on agriculture, more widespread measures to conserve water by
improvements in irrigation technology, construction of more reservoir projects
will be required especially in developing countries like Uganda where
agriculture counts for about 80% of the economy.
DESCRIPTION OF PURPOSE AND NEED
The Nikimu water
conservation project will be committed to water conservation project activities
in order to adapt to climate change and increase irrigation for food
production in subsequent years following its establishment.
The relief of Budaka
District is generally low and flat characterized by shallow
seasonal wetlands, were by these waters can be collected and conserved for
increased food production and adaption to climate change. Its altitude
ranges from 900-1200m above sea level (average of 1145m). The drainage system
is dominated by rivers flowing from the Namatala and lwere swamp complexes.
Which have their watersheds mainly on the slopes of Mt Elgon. The water source
to these wetlands is mainly surface flow in terms of rivers, precipitation and
ground water. There are great advantages associated with this project: the
conservation of these water sheds will also influence micro climate; the
environmental impact is low in area where the project is going to be located
and when these waters are collected and conserved for climate change
adaption purpose, the water conservation ponds can be used for fish farming;
the project supports the economy of Uganda, whereby it is based on agriculture
and the irrigation system and the water conservation will support food
production (organic farming) throughout the year.
conservation is necessary due to prolonged drought and climate change
which takes farmers by surprise in many parts of Budaka district.
drought, which used to take 3 month, now takes four to five month in several
parts of Budaka District( Eastern uganda). According to IPCC (Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change) and Climate Prediction Centers in Uganda. These
conditions are likely to continue and affect the nation of Uganda. As
drought conditions continue, Nikimu water conservation project will ensure that
maximum amount of water is conserved for agriculture (especially organic
farming) during these prolonged drought periods.
Youth, employment and Sustainable agriculture
"In Africa, 200
million people are aged between 15 and 24 years, comprising more than 20% of
population. Africa's population is growing fast and is experiencing a slow
demographic transition, which will increase the pressure countries face with
Youth make up 37%
percent of the working-age population in Africa, but 60%of the total
Youth unemployment is much
more prevalent in urban areas
Youth unemployment is
leading various problems in Africa including rebellions like the ones Tunisia
and Egypt and this likely to spread too many parts of the world if not
Lack of opportunities
in rural areas have encouraged the youth to migrate to urban centers. But,
because most countries like Uganda have not yet initiated their transition to
industrialization, urban centers cannot create a massive number of jobs. Thus,
in the short term, only rural activities like farming can effectively create
occupation for most new job seekers.
Modern agriculture has
considerable potential for job and wealth creation and may absorb large numbers
of would-be youth migrants or youths who currently crowd the cities with underemployment.
Making well balanced choices for employment-intensive investments in
agriculture activities can create immediate short term employment opportunities
which can be more easily tapped by young people. Combined with appropriate
local economic development strategies, it can generate more and sustainable
jobs. This requires strategies to make agriculture an attractive enough option
for youth to engage in, including moving away from subsistence agriculture, and
introducing commercialization and productivity improvements through
technological changes and infrastructure support. Supporting organic farming
and fish farming( highly recommend to day) can provide away forward for the
governments want to mitigate and prevent youth urban unemployment and underemployment
to grow, and the well being in the already congested African cities like
Kampala in Uganda. Not only will sustainable agriculture resolve youth
employment, but sustainable agriculture involving organic farming can solve
most of current environmental problems."
Organic farming in solving current environmental problems
Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change
farming's low-energy methods, it is not in reducing demand for power that the
techniques stand to make the biggest savings in greenhouse gas emissions. The
production of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, which is indispensable to
conventional farming, produces vast quantities of nitrous oxide "“ a greenhouse
gas with a global warming potential some 320 times greater than that of CO2. In
fact, the production of one tonne of ammonium nitrate creates 6.7 tonnes of
greenhouse gases (CO²e).
Far from being simply
"˜energy-lite', however, organic farms have the potential to become
self-sufficient in energy "“ farms can feed manure and waste from
livestock and crops into biodigesters, which convert it into a methane-rich gas
to be used for creating heat and electricity. The residue from these
biodigesters is a crumbly, nutrient-rich fertilizer, which can then be spread
on soil to increase crop yields or further digested by algae and used as
a fish or animal feed.
Visit an organic
farm and you'll notice something: a buzz of animal, bird and insect activity.
These organic oases are thriving, diverse habitats. Beneficial insects allow
for a greater balance, and indigenous animals find these farms a safe haven. As
best said by Aldo Leopold, "A good farm must be one where the native flora and
fauna have lost acreage without losing their existence." An organic farm is the
equivalent of reforestation. Industrial farms are the equivalent of clear
cutting of native habitat with a focus on high farm yields.
Protect Future Generations
Before a mother
first nurses her newborn, the toxic risk from pesticides has already begun.
Studies show that infants are exposed to hundreds of harmful chemicals in
uterus. In fact, our many nations are now reaping the results of exposure to
agricultural and industrial chemicals, whose safety was deemed on adult
tolerance levels, not on children's. According to the National Academy of
Science, "neurologic and behavioral effects may result from low-level exposure
to pesticides." Numerous studies show that pesticides can adversely affect the
nervous system, increase the risk of cancer, and decrease fertility. Promoting
organic farming inclusive in this project can be the way for sustainable and a
health future for our children."
The Pond Fish Farming in water conservation ponds will
contribute to Millennium Development Goals
How pond fish
farming contribute to MDGs
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
nutrition) correlates with reduced health care, it is proved that a lot of
money is spent on treating many nutritional diseases including protein
deficiencies in Uganda for example kwashiorkor ; project will improve
food security by constant production and supply of fresh fish in the
District and the Surrounding communities.
in potential sites will provide employment for at youth in Kamonkoli
and Budaka District as a whole, and income to farmers who will get involved
in continued farming during dry season, hence reducing poverty
Achieve Universal Primary Education
Target: Ensure that
by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete
a full course of Primary Schooling millennium summit
Fish protein is very
important in brain cells development and therefore the mental and brain
capacity of children. The poor academic and creativity capacity of the people
is closely associated with lack protein in children's diet, egg protein will
enable boys and girls alike, complete a full course of Primary without
difficulties. There will also be continued farming, this will be able to
provide food for students in school.
Promote gender equality and empower women
are executed both by men and women; hence water conservation will enable both
women and men for continued farming.
Reduce child mortality
Target ; reduce by
two- thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality
rate (millennium summit)
fights the most deadly disease (kwashiorkor)
Caused by lack or
low protein content in children Known to claim number of children in
developing nations including Uganda. Fish farming in water conservation ponds
will solve this problem.
Improve maternal Health
Target ; Reduce by
three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality
( millennium summit)
(through fish protein) and diet can reduce the susceptibility of a woman to
diseases which appear during pregnancy. Including women of child "“bearing age
as "end points" in health assessments of Nutrition will inform
Public health strategies as geared health of women, their children and the
Combat HIV/AIDs, malaria and other
Target ; Have halted
by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS(millennium summit)
Target: Have halted
by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other Major
Food security and
improved nutrition helps in fighting diseases, improved nutrition (through
fish protein and improved food production) can help to boost the immune
system of people suffering from HIV/AIDS.
Ensure environmental sustainability
Target : Integrate
the principles of sustainable development in to the country polices and
reverse the loss of environmental recourses
projects have been known to create micro climates.
Crops also are known
to improve micro climates through evapo- transpiration.
With fish farming,
by products will be recycled into poultry and animal feeds(organic farming),
this promotes environmental sustainability, as compared to the use of inorganic
Develop a global partnership for development
and other organizations represent a potential international funding to
support national capacity building for food security and improve farming or
agriculture in Uganda.
partnership with many agricultural, environmental organization
and ministries will benefit environmental conservation in Uganda